Genes and Family History
There is a body of evidence that obesity has a (tiny) genetic component.
Twin studies have shown a high correlation rate for obesity in identical twins, even if they are not brought up in a shared environment.
The FTO (Fat mass and obesity-associated protein) variant on chromosome 16 is what is usually implicated.
Influence of the genetic makeup seems to be present at, the distribution and formation of body fat, the activity of the minimum resting metabolic rate, food preferences, the level of physical activity, changes in energy use in response to overeating or dieting, and regulation of hunger and satiety.
By the interplay between lifestyle, genetic factors, and environmental factors, several researchers point to the fact that it can be difficult to stay slim.
Although the evidence supports genetic factors as the causes of obesity, some researchers maintain that the reason is still to be fully understood.
Certain medicines may cause you to gain weight.
Drugs can also have a downside: the side effects.
These medicines include some prednisone-like agents, antidepressants, and seizure medicines.
The medicine reaches everywhere in the body and can cause unintended consequences.
These medicines can affect the body’s metabolism, increase your appetite, slow down the rate at which your body burns calories, or even cause your body to hold on to excess water.
All of these diverse circumstances can influence your weight and lead to weight gain.
Fast food is calorie dense.
Fast food is perceived as a snack.
Children love fast food, calorie dense with fat and sugars.
Where it seems to come down to is that fast food and other snacks like candy bars are addictive.
This comes from a unique combination of fat, sugar, and salt.
This combination is very pleasurable for people so that they often continue to eat despite the fact that they are already full.
There isn’t a precise definition of stress in humans.
But in any event, stress in the human body is a response to external stimuli.
This tension raises followed by several physiological responses.
When you are faced with stress, you respond by fleeing or fighting or by stiffening.
Your heart pumps faster and more powerful and more free fatty acids are released into your blood.
Stiffening of terror can lead to more lipogenesis.
This is the synthesis of fat from carbohydrates.
Lipogenesis can lead to visceral obesity.
This can lead to an accumulation of fat around the stomach and intestines.
This form of obesity with excess abdominal fat is popularly known as ‘ beer belly ‘ mentioned, though some patients with “beer bellies” never drink beer.
Stress and increased cortisol production
Cortisol is produced in your adrenal glands.
The production of this steroid hormone occurs when you wake up, digests food or are doing exercise.
Cortisol is an important hormone which plays a role in the glucose metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, the release of insulin in inflammatory responses.
Psychosocial stressors lead to higher cortisol levels in your blood.
A short-term elevated cortisol value has a positive effect, but a long-term elevated cortisol value has a negative impact on your health.
Studies in humans and animals have shown a correlation between elevated cortisol levels, a feeling of hunger, a craving for foods high in carbohydrates and fat, and weight gain.
Furthermore, it is known that cortisol can cause adipocytes to grow into mature fat cells.
But the most significant negative impact of cortisol that can move fat deposits deep in the abdomen (the infamous belly fat).
Additives hormones, preservatives, and dangerous chemicals
There is an increasing number of people that are concerned that the genetic modification of our food supply coupled with the addition of hormones, preservatives and hazardous chemicals in the products we eat could be a significant cause of obesity.
The GMO (genetically modified organism) producers have manipulated the food supply that healthy food is all but impossible to either find or consume.
Several countries around the world have banned GMO products, by-products, pesticides and seeds for a reason.
An Inactive Lifestyle
Our way of living is continually changing.
Many lifestyle changes keep us from getting as much exercise as we used to get.
We’ are getting fatter because we are living the sedentary life.
Schools have been trimming physical education.
Labor-saving tools also have lessened the energy we expend at home cooking meals or doing work in and around the house.
And then there’s the Television, computers and an abundance of handheld devices that train our thumb and index finger, at best.
It is common knowledge that a bit of exercise is good for the heart and blood vessels, but it does more for health.
By moving people get a better ratio between LDL and HDL cholesterol levels: elevated LDL cholesterol can lead to atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries). By moving enough good cholesterol (HDL) increases.
That’s good for the blood vessels.
The more one moves, the easier the weight remains stable.
The fact of the matter is we find high sugar, high fat palatable foods like chocolate more appealing, more rewarding and more pleasurable to eat.
Compared to bland foods like grains and green vegetables, we experience chocolate, for example, as more rewarding, so much so that we will eat it even when we’re not hungry.
This compulsion shows analogy to the drugtaker’s compulsion to take a drug.
But it could be possible that our natural evolved preference for energy-dense foods could have turned into something more dangerous?
Could we become addicted to these foods?
Addiction meaning uncontrolled eating, eating that’s not associated with the pleasant sensations of fullness, satiation, but associated with unpleasant feelings, like regret, or shame, or even physical discomfort.
The Yale food addiction scale (you can find it here http://www.yaleruddcenter.org/resources/upload/docs/what/addiction/FoodAddictionScale09.pdf) has been proposed to be a valid means of determining whether someone is addicted to food.
The scale is a questionnaire that asks the responder to think about their eating behavior in the last year, with particular reference to palatable high sugar or high-fat foods like chocolate or fried food.
They’re asked whether they frequently overeat even when they’re not hungry, whether they worry about eating certain foods or worry about trying not to eat them.
Whether overeating or the fear of overeating has resulted in them missing work or social activities, that sort of thing.
By indicating how often they have these experiences or feelings, a score is generated which is used as a diagnosis of food addiction.
And the use of the Yale Scale is starting to become somewhat widespread.
And it’s been suggested that patients defined as food addicted using the scale are more susceptible to food cravings and binge eating.
Furthermore, these patients are suggested to be more impulsive and more emotional and reactive.
And they may also show a greater tendency to eat during periods of stress.
Other Possible Causes Of Obesity
This article hasn’t dealt with all the possible causes.
There are probably many more.
- High Fructose Corn Syrup
- Anger or Boredom
- Gut Bacteria (e.g., Methanobrevibacter and Enterobacter)
It is clear that there is no one determining factor causing obesity.
There are several reasons which often in combination with each other lead to obesity.